1. Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption.

2. Drought monitoring - Continuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with current usage levels can help prevent man-made drought. For instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop. Careful monitoring of moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfires, using such metrics as the Keetch-Byram Drought Index or Palmer Drought Index.

3. Land use - Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependant crops in drier years.

4. Rainwater harvesting - Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.

5. Recycled water - Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse.

6. Transvasement - Building canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at irrigation in drought-prone areas.

7. Water restrictions - Water use may be regulated (particularly outdoors). This may involve regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, the washing of motor vehicles or other outdoor hard surfaces (including roofs and paths), topping up of swimming pools, and also the fitting of water conservation devices inside the home (including shower heads, taps and dual flush toilets).

8. Reduction of Human population and animal pressure.

9. Cloud seeding - an artificial technique to induce rainfall.

Drought mitigation strategies

Copyright © 2008 Pakistan Meteorological Department. All Rights Reserved.